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Home » Publications » Papers in scientific journals and popular science publications» 2006

Protección de la vid frente a Armillaria mellea mediante la aplicación de hongos micorrícicos
Nutri-fitos Nov. 2006 Nº107 Pag:27-32

Aguín Casal, Olga¹; Montenegro Gregorio, Dolores¹; Mansilla Vázquez, J. Pedro¹; Vilariño Rodriguez, Antón² y Sáinz Oses, Maria Jesús³

¹ Estación Fitopatolóxica de Areeiro, Subida a la Robleda s/n, Pontevedra, España
² Instituto de Investigaciones Agrobiológicas de Galicia. CSIC. Apart. 122. 15780 Santiago de Compostela
³ Dep. Producción Vegetal, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Universitario, Lugo, España

ABSTRACT: Armillaria mellea causes white root rot in a wide range of woody species, among them grapevines. At present, control is mainly based on preventive measures, and on the application of chemicals, although none of them proved to be totally efficient. Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) are mutualistic plant-fungus symbiosis which play an important role against root pathogenic fungi. In the present work, the effect of AM Glomus aggregatum on the protection of three vine rootstocks against Armillaria mellea has been studied. Results showed that the inoculation of mycorrhizal fungi can increase the tolerance to the disease in most sensitive rootstocks

Keywords:Armillaria mellea, arbuscular mycorrhizas, protection, grapevine

Efectos de la aplicación de CPPU en la producción de kiwi de plantaciones tratadas con cianamida de hidrógeno
Nutri-fitos Nov. 2006 Nº107 Pag: 51-57

M.C. Salinero-Corral¹, M.P. Piñón-Esteban¹ , P.Vela Fernández¹ y M.J. Sáinz Oses²

¹ Estación Fitopatolóxica de Areeiro, Subida a la Robleda s/n, Pontevedra, España
² Dep. Producción Vegetal, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Universitario, Lugo, España

ABSTRACT: In northwest Spain, insufficient chilling hours in winter result in low budbreak and flowering, and consequently poor fruit production in orchards of Actinidia deliciosa 'Hayward'. Hydrogen cyanamide (HCN) increases budbreak and flower production in mild climate regions. Application of CPPU (N-[2-chloro-4-pyridyl]-N-phenylurea) after fruit set can also enhance fruit production by increasing fruit size. In the present work, field experiments were carried out to study the combined effects of HCN and CPPU on fruit production in two kiwifruit orchards at Pontevedra (NW Spain). Application of HCN significantly increased fruit production, especially in one of the orchards, by 3-4 t/ha relative to the control. This effect was greater when plants received both hydrogen cyanamide and CPPU, leading to yields of 7 t/ha more than in control plots that received no treatments, and, what is more important from a practical point of view, to higher mean fruit weights and marketable production.

Keywords:Actinidia deliciosa, budbreak, fruit weight, flowering, Hayward

Ruta de las Camelias:
Jardines emblemáticos con encanto
Revista SEC Nº9 Pag:15-19

Blanca Coladas², Carmen Salinero¹, María González¹, Ana Neves¹

¹ Estación Fitopatolóxica de Areeiro, Subida a la Robleda s/n, Pontevedra, España
² Finca La Saleta

La Camelias en Galicia
Revista SEC Nº9 Pag:5-14

Carmen Salinero, María González

Estación Fitopatolóxica do Areeiro

ABSTRACT: We all know Galicia constitutes an optimum region for the adequate development of the camellias. In our land a humid climate with mild temperatures (humid and mild temperatures) coexist together with fertile soils and acids, which encourage plant growth. Several experts are surprised to observe camellias thrive although they are neglected during long periods of time, whereas in other regions in Spain or Europe they need constant care, sometimes needing the protection of a greenhouse.

Técnicas: Cochinillas
Revista SEC Nº9 Pag:22-23

Rosa Pérez Otero, Pedro Mansilla Vázquez

Estación Fitopatolóxica do Areeiro

ABSTRACT: Scale insects are a group of insects belonging to Hemiptera order, Homoptera suborder affecting a wide range of woody plants and some grasses. They stick to the stalk and to the main nerves of the leaves. There are around 7.000 species of insect scales.

Setos y topiarios realizados con Camellia.
Formas volumétricas en jardines.

BricoJardinería & Paisajismo Nº146

Carmen Salinero Corral, Pilar Vela Fernández, María González García

Estación Fitopatolóxica do Areeiro Subida a la Robleda S/N E-36153 Pontevedra, Spain

Maize (Zea mays L.) Genetic Factors for Preventing Fumonisin Contamination
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

Ana Butrón², Rogelio Santiago², Pedro Mansilla Vázquez¹, Cristina Pintos-Varela¹, Amando Ordás², Rosa Ana Malvar².

¹Excma. Diputación de Pontevedra. Servicio Agrario. Estación Fitopatolóxica do Areeiro, Subida a la Robleda s/n, E-36153, Lourizán, Pontevedra, España

²Misión Biológica de Galicia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado 28 36080 Pontevedra, España

ABSTRACT:     Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium proliferatum are the most frequently isolated fungi from maize (Zea mays L.) in Spain. Both Fusarium species produces toxins potentially dangerous for animals and humans, the fumonisis begin the most of significant of those toxins. White maize is preferred for human comsumption, and extra care should be taken to avoid kernel mycotoxin contamination. The objetives of this study were to identify and quantify kernel infection by Fusarium spp. and contamination by fumonisin on white maize hybrids, to search for white maize sources of resistance to infection by Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin contamination, and to preliminary study the genetics involved in such resistances. Ten F1 single crosses derived form a diallel mating desing among five white maize inbreds were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications in 2002 at two locations. Fusarium verticilloides and F. proliferatum were detected on kernels of white maize hybrids cultivated in nothwestern Spain. No diferences in fungal infection were found among maize genotypes, but differences in fumonisin contamination were significan and could be related, in part, to differeces in husk tightness. Among the genotypes studied, general combining ability (GCA) effects were the most important for resistence to fumonisin contamination. Inbreds EP10 and Ec22 showed the most favorable GCA effects for husk tightness and fumosinin content, and the cross between them, EP10 x EC22, had the most favorable specific combining ability (SCA) effect for husk tightness. Imbreds EP10 and EC22 showed favorable GCA effects for fumonisin contamination and husk tightness. Imbreds EP10 x EC22 was the only one with an average fumonisin level below 1 µg/g. Althought this sholud be confirmed with more extensive studies, white maize imbreds developed form white maize landraces could be resources of resistance to fumonisin contamination.

KEYWORDS: Fusarium verticilloides, Fusarium proliferatum, plant resistance, Zea mays.

Biología y posibilidades de control de Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor, nueva plaga del eucalipto en Galicia
BSVP 32:429-437, 2006

Pérez Otero, Rosa; Mansilla Vázquez, Pedro; Mansilla Salinero, Pablo

Excma. Diputación de Pontevedra. Servicio Agrario. Estación Fitopatolóxica do Areeiro, Subida a la Robleda s/n, E-36153 Pontevedra, Spain

Abstract: The psyllid Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor was detected in Galicia in 2003. After the introduction of Gonipterus scutellatus in the area, and due to the importance of eucalyptus on the economy in north-western Spain, several studies on the biology and control of this insect have been initiated. Regarding its biology, this insect completes around six and eight annual generations (both under field and semifield conditions), each with an average duration of 50 days, although observing a high variability among seasons (generations take longer to complete in winter). Assays on the efficiency of several insecticides on the control of this pest have been performed. Although imidacloprid showed the best results, azadiractin, flufenoxuron, and malation have also been efficient in controlling insect populations. New assays need to be performed in order to confirm the results obtained, focusing also in the secondary effects of this insecticides on the beneficial insects found in eucalyptus stands.

KEYWORDS: Life cycle, control, Ctenarytaina spatulata, eucalyptus, Galicia

Detección e identificación por técnicas moleculares de especies del género Armillaria a partir de muestras de suelo
BSVP 32:231-240, 2006

P. E. Escofet Crespo, O. Aguín Casal , J. P. Mansilla Vázquez

Excma. Diputación de Pontevedra. Servicio Agrario. Estación Fitopatolóxica do Areeiro, Subida a la Robleda s/n, E-36153 Pontevedra, Spain

Abstract: In the present work, the results of the identification of Armillaria species from soil samples, without previously isolating and culturing the micelia on a plate were presented. DNA was extracted from 250 mg of soil, and the ITS region of the fungus was amplified by nested PCR with external primers ITS1 and ITS4 and internal primers AR1 and AR2. The products obtained in the double amplification were analyzed by RFLP, using the restriction enzimes Hinf I and MboI. This method allows the differentiation among Armillaria species from different patterns of bands characteristic for each species. 70% of the samples analyzed were identified as Armillaria mellea, 16% were A. gallica and 14% of the samples were not infected by Armillaria.

KEYWORDS: Armillaria mellea, Armillaria gallica, nested-PCR, RFLP, soil.

In vitro selection of an effective fungicide against Armillaria mellea and control of white root rot of grapevine in the field
Pest Management Science 62:233-228 (2006)

Olga Aguín,¹ J Pedro Mansilla¹², María J Sainz²

¹Excma. Diputación de Pontevedra. Servicio Agrario. Estación Fitopatolóxica do Areeiro, Subida a la Robleda s/n, E-36153 Pontevedra, Spain

² Departamento de Producción Vegetal, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Universitario, E-27002 Lugo, Spain

Abstract:     Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr) Kummer is an aggressive pathogen which causes white root rot in a wide range of hosts. Most chemicals tested so far against Armillaria, both in vitro and in the field, have not been effective in reducing fungal growth and/or preventing plant decline and mortality. In the present work the effects of four DMI (sterol demethylation inhibitor) fungicides, cyproconazole, hexaconazole, propiconazole and tetraconazole, and another six downwardly mobile systemic chemicals, azoxystrobin, cubiet (copperis(ethoxy-dihydroxy-diethylamino)sulfate), fosetyl-Al, potassium phosphite, sodium tetrathiocarbonate (STTC) and 2-(thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole (TCMTB), on the mycelial growth of A. mellea were compared and evaluated; the product yielding the best results in in vitro experiments was selected to determine its efficacy in preventing decline and mortality of grapevines in the field. Best results on in vitro fungal growth reduction were obtained with the four azoles tested, in particular with cyproconazole and hexaconazole, achieving 67–72% mycelial growth inhibition at the lowest dose. Results obtained in the field showed that a dose of 50mg AI litre-1 of cyproconazole once or twice a year was efficient in controlling the disease even in vines seriously affected by the pathogen. However, further research is required to study minimum effective doses, residual effects and the convenience of the application of annual dressings in damaged vineyards, so as to gradually reduce the pathogen inoculum potential in soil and control the disease while reducing chemical residues in the plant and preventing development of fungal resistance.

KEYWORDS:Armillaria mellea; cyproconazole; DMI fungicides; Vitis